How do cultural factors influence our perception of sensory stimuli?

Reflect on the role of illusions in studying sensation and perception. Why do illusions occur, and what do they reveal about the workings of our sensory and perceptual systems? How can illusions help us understand the limitations and biases of our perceptions?

or

How do cultural factors influence our perception of sensory stimuli? Give examples of how cultural norms and values can shape our interpretation of sensory information.

Grading:

To complete the discussion post for full credit, follow the instructions below: 

A minimum of one complete paragraph for your answer.

Note: a paragraph is a writing structure that requires a minimum of five complete sentences.

These five or more sentences should represent a valid knowledge of the topic.

  1. Use APA 7th Citations and Formatting Examples
  2. The Discussion also requires a Comment or Reply to a classmate’s Discussion.

This Comment or Reply requires a minimum of three complete sentences.

  1. It is not only about the number of sentences, but the valid knowledge of the topic represented throughout the paragraph (Discussion) and/or the three sentences (Comment or Reply). “university student’s sentences” not “Mary is a girl or Tom is a boy” kind of sentences…

These three sentences should represent a valid knowledge of the other student’s Discussion.

  1. Note: Sentences just expressing your opinion and/or perception of your classmate’s Discussion, and/or complimenting your classmate do not count for points, i.e., “I love what you wrote about…”; “You did a great job…”; “I agree with you”…

Not complying with all the above requirements will decrease the score for the Discussion.

List the lobes of the brain and their function.

1. Name 3 nerves and their function.

2. List the lobes of the brain and their function.

Please see the playlist below.

Week 2 Chat Hour Playlist

Ask questions, reply, and provide feedback for the week prior to help us all grow a class. The standards for this section are as follows:

Respect others’ rights to hold opinions and beliefs that differ from your own. Challenge or criticize the idea, not the person.

Listen carefully to what others are saying even when you disagree with what is being said. Comments that you make (asking for clarification, sharing critiques, expanding on a point, etc.) should reflect that you have paid attention to the speaker’s comments.

Be courteous. Don’t interrupt or engage in private conversations while others are speaking.

Support your statements. Use evidence and provide a rationale for your points

Allow everyone the chance to talk. If you have much to say, try to hold back a bit; if you are hesitant to speak, look for opportunities to contribute to the discussion.

If you are offended by something or think someone else might be, speak up and don’t leave it for someone else to have to respond to it.

Major threats to aquatic biomes

This week we will highlight some major threats to aquatic biomes. It is safe to say that one of the most rapidly growing threats to marine life (and to our life, for that matter) is plastic pollution. Plastic pollution is as concerning as it is recent; much more recent than climate change. Plastic only started to become popular in the 1960’s, meaning it has only been around for roughly 3 human generations. And yet, here we are facing the equivalent of dumping a plastic-filled garbage truck in our oceans every minute of every hour for an entire year! Whoa. The pollution has gotten so out of control that we end up finding articles such as thisLinks to an external site. Becoming more and more common in our daily news.

From an evolutionary perspective, this is such a recent issue that none of the 700+ species impacted by plastic pollution have had any time to distinguish it from food.

We need to get rid of this problem faster than its accumulation rate. But how? How do we deal with plastic pollution? I’d love to hear from you on that. Anything from personal “tips and tricks” on product replacement/reduction, to volunteering at your local beach, to global policy changes. Anything goes in our effort to directly and positively impact our marine world.

cooking or manufacture of the food

1. Write a detailed description of what you ate at your last meal that had at least one thing that had to be cooked. Categorize each food carbohydrate, lipids, protein and nucleic acids.  Remember that most foods have more than one of the biomolecules  Be detailed and must be original writing.  You can share a recipe if you would like.
2. Describe how water and pH could affect the food or drink in this meal, such as in the cooking process, or in the taste, or in the texture, or in preserving the food.
3. What would happen if these conditions were changed during cooking or manufacture of the food – if the pH was much higher or much lower, or the water was too much or too little?
4. Choose one nutrient in food and discuss its importance. It could be protein, lipids, carbohydrates, antioxidants, a vitamin, a mineral, or water.

Describe the axes of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve

 The Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve

Before you begin namedropping this polysyllabic term to impress others, begin by explaining its dynamics and why understanding it is critical to grasping cardiopulmonary physiology

– Describe the axes of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Where on the curve we typically load and offload hemoglobin, and how the curve shifts due to the presence of certain ions and conditions

– Briefly describe a condition in which oxygen saturation may be compromised.

  • Strategies employed to restore oxygen saturation

– Does oxygen saturation decline during a graded exercise test?

What is the RR of dying of lung cancer for smokers versus nonsmokers

The next seven questions (3–9) are based on the following data: The death rate per 100,000 for lung cancer is 7 among nonsmokers and 71 among smokers. The death rate per 100,000 for coronary thrombosis is 422 among nonsmokers and 599 among smokers. The prevalence of smoking in the population is 55%. (If necessary, refer to the chapter on cohort studies for formulas for RR.)

3) What is the RR of dying of lung cancer for smokers versus nonsmokers?

4) What is the RR of dying of coronary thrombosis for smokers versus nonsmokers?

5) What is the etiologic fraction of disease due to smoking among individuals with lung cancer?

6) What is the etiologic fraction of disease due to smoking among individuals with coronary thrombosis?

7) What is the population etiologic fraction of lung cancer due to smoking?

8) What is the population etiologic fraction of coronary thrombosis due to smoking?

9) On the basis of the RR and etiologic fractions associated with smoking from lung cancer and coronary thrombosis, which one a) of the following statements is most likely to be correct?

b) Smoking seems much more likely to be causally related to coronary thrombosis than to lung cancer.

c) Smoking seems much more likely to be causally related to lung cancer than to coronary thrombosis.

e) Smoking seems to be equally causally related to both lung cancer and coronary thrombosis.

d) Smoking does not seem to be causally related to either lung cancer or coronary thrombosis.

e) No comparative statement is possible between smoking and lung cancer or coronary thrombosis.

Please take your time and answer all of them correctly

the strength of the association between exposure and disease

This chapter covered two new measures of effect—absolute and relative effects—that may be used as aids in the interpretation of epidemiologic studies. In addition, the chapter presented guidelines that should be taken into account when one is interpreting an epidemiologic finding. Absolute effects, the first variety of which is called risk differences, are determined by finding the difference in measures of disease frequency between exposed and nonexposed individuals.

Study Questions and Exercises

1) Calculate the etiologic fraction when the RR for disease associated with a given exposure is 1.2, 1.8, 3, and 15.)

2) The impact of an exposure on a population does not depend on:

a) the strength of the association between exposure and disease.

b) the prevalence of the exposure.

c) the case fatality rate.

d) the overall incidence rate of disease in the population

An Introduction to Genetic Analysis.

Molecular bases of penetrance and expressivity

Mendel was performing his classical experiments with pea planta that have very clear-cut phenotypes. The plant was either with purple or white flowers, with yellow or green seeds, etc. However, when working with human disorders time to time we would observe certain traits that should be expressed but they are not, or they will be expressed but with varying degrees among the offspring [1, 2]. The advancement of the Molecular Genetics allowed for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these phenomena [3].

Can you find examples of traits that show penetrance or varying expressivity not only in humans but in other organisms as well? Can you find explanation from a molecular point of view what the underlying mechanism is?

1. Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, et al. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th edition, New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

2. Miko, I. (2008) Phenotype variability: penetrance and expressivity. Nature Education 1(1):137

3. Zlotogora, J. Penetrance and expressivity in the molecular age. Genet Med 5, 347–352 (2003)

What is the role of DNA in the process of protein synthesis

What is the role of DNA in the process of protein synthesis?DNA contains the genetic instructions for protein synthesis. It serves as a template for the production of mRNA (messenger RNA) during transcription. The mRNA then carries the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it is used as a template for the assembly of amino acids into a protein during translation. Thus, DNA plays a crucial role in determining the sequence of amino acids in a protein.

From this Week, it should be clear that primates, such as chimpanzees and bonobos, share a very large percentage of their DNA with Humans. Watch the “60 Minutes” interview, Jane Goodall and Her Chimps. Dr. Jane Goodall is a world famous scientist. For this discussion, your post will focus on the evolutionary differences and similarities between humans and chimpanzees.

Download the transcript for the video.

2. Initial Post: Create a new thread and answer all three parts of the initial prompt below

  1. What do you think is the most important discovery that Dr. Jane Goodall was able to make about chimpanzees during the early years of her research and why?  Guidance: It’s important to use the video or transcript for your post (not Google or other sources); it has everything you need!  Be sure to include WHY you think the discovery you chose was the most important.
  2. Explain (3) specific differences OR (3) specific similarities between chimpanzee and human behavior.  Guidance: Make sure your post provides at least THREE specific differences OR similarities (not both or a mix) between the BEHAVIOR (not biology, appearance, etc.) of chimpanzees and humans.
  3. Do you think humans have a moral obligation to preserve the habitat of the chimpanzee. Why? OR Why not?  Guidance: Be sure to share WHY you have this opinion.

How have antibiotics changed the quality of life for humans over the past century

Latasha, a part time college student, recently went to a doctor’s appointment for a high fever and strep throat. The doctor prescribed her Amoxicillin for 10 days. After taking antibiotics for 5 days, she started to feel better, so she stopped taking the medication. However, a couple of weeks later, Latasha returned to the doctor. Instead of prescribing her the same medication, the doctor wrote Latasha a 5-day prescription of Zpack.

Watch this video on Antibiotics and Resistance and read the article found at https://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/features/antibiotic-alternatives-amr-resistance/ BEFORE responding to the prompts.

2. Initial Post: Create a new thread and answer all three parts of the initial prompt below

  1. How have antibiotics changed the quality of life for humans over the past century?  Guidance: It is important to use the video or transcript for your post (not Google or other sources); it has everything you need!  Be sure to include specifics on how the QUALITY of human life has changed when comparing life before antibiotics to life after antibiotics.
  2. Explain why Latasha’s failure to take her antibiotics as prescribed might contribute to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.Guidance: It is important to use the video or transcript for your post (not Google or other sources); it has everything you need!  The focus of your response is on an EXPLANATION of the EVOLUTION of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  3. Review the video and article provided in the Discussion Background and Discuss which of the approaches to combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria is best and why.  Guidance: It is important to use the video (or video transcript) and the article for your post (not Google or other sources); they have everything you need!  Be sure discuss ONE suggested approach to combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria and WHY it is the best.