I. Multiple Choice
NOTE: The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:
2, 12, 16, 22, 32, 38, 47, 55
1. Of the following trends, which had the least effect on the development of behaviorism?
a. the philosophical movement called materialism
b. the mental testing movement
c. the study of animal behavior
d. the positivist ideas of Comte
2. According to the 19th century positivist ideas of Auguste Comte,
a. the ability to control nature is evidence that nature has been understood
b. truth ultimately lies in metaphysical analysis
c. we can never be sure of the reality of anything
d. psychology should be the study of consciousness, not the study of behavior
3. The 19th century positivist Auguste Comte would agree with all of the following except
a. the purpose of science is to understand nature, not control it
b. metaphysical analysis about the basic nature of the universe is a waste of time
c. we can only be sure of the knowledge gained through objective observations of nature
d. truth amounts to agreement among multiple observers
4. What did Comte in the 19th century and Bacon in the 17th century have in common?
a. they both argued that psychology should be the study of overt behavior
b. they both tended toward the rationalist end of the rationalist-empiricist continuum
c. they both believed that to control nature directly was to understand nature
d. they both believed in Darwinian evolution
5. Behaviorism’s roots include all of the following except
a. Darwinian evolution
b. British empiricism/associationism (e.g., Mill)
c. European rationalist philosophy (e.g., Kant)
6. Pavlov won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his
a. research on the physiology of the digestive system
b. discovery and research on conditioning
c. discovery of the mathematical laws of genetics
d. development of open heart surgical procedures
7. Pavlov’s decision to avoid the priesthood and become a scientist was aided by his reading of
a. Sechenov’s book on the brain
b. Darwin’s book on evolution
c. William James’s Principles of Psychology
d. both alternatives a Sechenov’s book on the brain and Darwin’s book on evolution
8. Pavlov’s model of brain processes, centering on the ideas of excitation and inhibition, were most clearly influenced by
a. his reading of Darwin’s Origin of Species
b. his knowledge of nineteenth century phrenology
c. Sechenov’s Reflexes of the Brain
d. none of these—the ideas were original with him, based on his years of research
9. If you just arrived as a student in Pavlov’s lab in, say, 1910, what would your first main task probably be?
a. replicating conditioning experiments that had already been completed
b. continuing your own research program (most of Pavlov’s students were already qualified as
physicians and doing their own research)
c. you would be assigned some new research to see if you could perform well enough (it was
survival of the fittest in Pavlov’s lab)
d. cleaning dog cages
10. If you asked Pavlov to identify himself, he would say he was a
c. physiological psychologist
11. In Pavlovian conditioning that attempts to train a dog to salivate to a tone, the tone is called a(n)
a. conditioned reflex
b. unconditioned reflex
c. conditional stimulus
d. unconditioned stimulus
12. After conditioning, a CS produces a CR. But if the CS is then presented repeatedly without the UCS, the CR diminishes. Pavlov called this process
13. How did Pavlov measure extinction of a conditioned response?
a. by the amount of saliva produced in response to the CS
b. by the time that passed between the presentation of the CS and the onset of salivation
c. Pavlov used both of the measures described in alternatives a. and b.
d. none of these—extinction was measured by whether or not the dog would eat
14. If a dog is conditioned to respond to a 70 cps tone, it might also salivate to an 80 cps tone. Pavlov called this
b. spontaneous recovery
15. According to Pavlov, cortical excitation is to cortical inhibition as ______ is to ______.
a. acquisition; extinction
b. generalization; differentiation
c. both acquisition; extinction and generalization; differentiation
d. none of these
16. If a dog is salivating to a 60 cps tone, but not to a 70 cps tone, what has probably happened?
b. spontaneous recovery
c. experimental neurosis
17. Once a dog has been conditioned to respond to a 70 cps tone, how was differentiation accomplished (i.e., respond to 70 but not to 80)?
a. keep sounding the 70 cps tone until the CR diminishes
b. continue pairing the food with the CS, but don’t pair food with an 80 cps tone
c. extinguish the behavior to the 70 cps tone, and reinforce the behavior to an 80 cps tone
d. pair the 70 cps tone with an 80 cps tone, until the animal salivates equally to both
18. In Pavlov’s laboratory, the phenomenon of “experimental neurosis” occurred when
a. the dogs weren’t fed when they expected to be fed
b. highly excitable dogs were bred with calmer dogs
c. stimuli that could be discriminated initially were made so similar that discrimination failed
d. a bell rather than a tone was used as the CS
19. A dog is trained to differentiate between an ellipse and a circle. The two stimuli are then made virtually identical. What happens?
a. extinction to both stimuli
b. generalization—salivation to both stimuli
c. the dogs stop paying attention
d. experimental neurosis
20. In the experimental neurosis research, how did the dogs react behaviorally?
a. they became over-excited, nearly manic
b. they became very placid, almost as if they had given up
c. either a. or b. occurred, depending on the initial temperament of the dog
d. it took a while, but the dogs eventual learned the discrimination task
21. Which of the following best characterizes the Pavlov’s attitude toward the Soviet Union?
a. he never accommodated and as a result he had great difficulty getting funds for his lab
b. he became an enthusiastic propagandist, eager to apply his conditioning principles to society
c. he came to accept reality when Germany became a major threat to his beloved homeland
d. fortunately, he was in retirement by the time of the Soviet Revolution of 1917
22. How was Pavlov treated by the Soviet Union?
a. his work was supported financially because it was consistent with the Soviet vision
b. he was treated with suspicion and temporarily jailed because of his criticisms of the Soviets
c. he was tolerated for a while, but his criticisms eventually led to his deportation to Great Britain
d. because of Pavlov’s enthusiastic public support for the revolution, he was a hero to the Soviets
23. Which of the following is true about the influence of Pavlovian conditioning on American psychologists?
a. despite the Yerkes and Morgulis article, there was little initial impact—American
psychologists were more interested in motor behavior (movement) than salivation
b. American psychologists never accepted the concept of Pavlovian conditioning
c. within a short time after the Yerkes and Morgulis article in 1909, introductory textbooks
started including detailed descriptions of Pavlov’s work
d. American psychologists did not find out anything about Pavlov’s work until the 1920s
24. The Close-Up on misportraying Pavlov’s apparatus shows that
a. errors can be perpetuated when textbook authors rely too heavily on secondary sources
b. much of the early Pavlovian research was fraudulent (the research was really done by
Nicolai, not Pavlov)
c. over the years, textbook authors have tried to show that Pavlov’s research was
d. history is more fun to read when pictures are involved
25. Pavlov’s apparatus is often misportrayed in modern psychology textbooks because
a. Yerkes and Morgulis put the wrong labels on the drawings in their 1909 article
b. Pavlov deliberately altered the drawings to make it difficult for others to steal his procedures
c. textbook writers often rely on secondary sources, which may be in error
d. the apparatus that he actually used was much too complicated to reproduce in textbook
26. How did Pavlov’s conditioning work differ from that of Vladimir Bekhterev?
a. Pavlov conditioned salivary reflexes, while Bekhterev conditioned motor reflexes
b. Pavlov used animals and subjects, while Bekhterev used humans
c. Pavlov focused on the acquisition of conditioned reflexes, while Bekhterev concentrated on
the extinction of conditioned reflexes
d. Pavlov was only interested in normal behavior, while Bekhterev was interested primarily in
abnormal behavior (experimental neurosis)
27. Pavlov gave a famous talk at the 1929 Yale International Conference. He also attended a party hosted by Cattell; the main topic at the party was
a. the impact of Soviet policies on Pavlov’s work
b. some studies of Miles that involved rats learning elevated mazes
c. Pavlov’s research on experimental neurosis
d. Pavlov’s belied that his form of conditioning was superior to Bekhterev’s
28. In his studies at Chicago, Watson was influenced by Jacques Loeb, who was known for his
a. research on the neurology of white rats
b. maze learning studies
c. work on tropisms, or forced movements
d. famous laboratory course, based on Titchener’s Manuals
29. Watson was a graduate student at the University of Chicago. Thus, in his early training he was most influenced by which school of thought in American psychology?
c. gestalt psychology
30. All of the following were true about Watson’s graduate training at Chicago except
a. his rural background made it easy for him to become interested in comparative psychology
b. in his doctoral dissertation he discovered tropisms, which were forced S-R movements
c. he quickly discovered that introspective psychology did not appeal to him
d. he was influenced by the neurologist Henry Donaldson and the physiologist Jacques Loeb
31. In the Watson and Carr maze learning studies, it was concluded that the ______ was the most critical.
a. kinesthetic sense
b. sense of smell
c. visual sense
d. none of these—it was found that kinesthesis, vision, and smell contributed equally and
that each was necessary
32. According to Watson and Carr, how do animals learn mazes?
a. kinesthetic responses are conditioned to the stimuli of the maze paths
b. they rely on their sense of vision
c. they don’t have to learn—maze running is innate for them
d. they rely on a combination of their sense of vision, smell, and touch (from their whiskers)
33. After moving to Johns Hopkins, Watson continued his interests in animal behavior by
a. creating maze learning as a method, by adapting the Hampton Court maze
b. discovering Pavlov and replicating Pavlov’s salivary conditioning research
c. studying the relationship between cortical development and learning ability in newborn rats
d. studying the sensory capabilities of various species (i.e., animal psychophysics)
34. What did Watson have in common with Douglas Spalding and Konrad Lorenz?
a. all three tried to determine how rats learned mazes
b. all three reported the behavior that eventually came to be called imprinting
c. all three focused exclusively on laboratory research in animal behavior
d. all three made important contributions to animal psychophysics
35. When Watson described some of his conditioning research in his 1915 APA Presidential address, he showed that he preferred the methods of Bekhterev to those of Pavlov. Why?
a. Watson was interested in motor behavior (movement), the kind that Bekhterev studied
b. Watson thought that Bekhterev was simply a more competent scientist than Pavlov
c. Watson knew about Bekhterev’s research, but did not know about Pavlov’s work
d. Watson preferred human to animal research, a preference shared by Bekhterev
36. According to Watson, thinking
a. cannot be studied behaviorally and is therefore not a part of psychology
b. is subvocal speech involving muscle movements in the larynx
c. does involve imageless thought
d. can be shown to occur in animals at a level similar to the thinking observed in humans
(i.e., he agreed with Köhler)
37. In the behaviorist manifesto, Watson declared that
a. no clear dividing line separated humans and animals
b. structuralism was a dead end, but functionalism was a good approach to psychology
c. the behavioral approach is concerned only with basic research; practical applications may
come eventually, but they are not a major interest
d. Wundt’s version of introspection was OK, but Titchener’s was out
38. In the behaviorist manifesto, Watson identified the goal of psychology. It was to
a. be able to predict and control behavior
b. solve the mind-body problem once and for all
c. reduce behavior to nervous system activity—psychology should eventually become physiology
d. establish basic research as the only major activity of psychologists—applications could wait
39. How did Watson explain thinking?
a. it was unobservable, part of the psychology he was rejecting, so he ignored it
b. he believed it was the one exception to the rules of conditioning and was the one thing that
separated humans from nonhumans
c. he believed thinking was, in essence, subvocal speaking (i.e., another measurable behavior)
d. he thought it involved visual imagery and therefore could not be measured objectively
40. In the manifesto, Watson first criticized structuralism and introspection. What was his attitude toward functionalism?
a. very supportive—after all, he had been trained by functionalists at Chicago
b. he didn’t have anything to say about functionalism in the manifesto
c. he criticized them for also defining psychology in terms of consciousness
d. he criticized them for only being interested in nervous system action (he accused them of trying
to turn psychology into biology)
41. Which of the following best characterizes the reaction to Watsonian behaviorism?
a. he motivated lots of research psychologists to change their approach, but Watson had
little impact on public opinion
b. the behaviorist manifesto was truly revolutionary and within just a few years
introspection and the psychology of consciousness disappeared from the scene
c. Watson was popular with the public, but had no real impact on academic psychology
d. behaviorism came to dominate American psychology, but it happened only gradually, with
the school becoming a major force only in the 1930s
42. The behaviorist manifesto was published in 1913. What was true about American psychology two years later?
a. introspection had virtually disappeared from the scene
b. most students wanted to become behaviorists and most psychologists had converted to
c. most psychologists considered the manifesto as another example of a growing uneasiness
d. it was absolutely unchanged—in fact, nobody even bothered to respond to Watson in print
43. In his “behaviorist manifesto,” what did Watson describe as the goal for psychology?
a. to be able to predict the response, given a particular stimulus
b. to be able to reduce consciousness to its basic elements
c. to be able to understand how consciousness operates in animals as well as in humans
d. to be able to identify and classify all the “O’s” in the formulation S-O-R
44. Which of the following stimuli and responses are appropriately paired, according to Watson?
a. stroking the skin—sleep
b. loss of support—fear
c. hampering movement—fear
d. loud noise—rage
45. On the basis of his research with infants, Watson believed there were ___ basic emotions, and they were ___________.
a. 3; rage, fear, and love
b. 3; fear, anger, and happiness
c. 2; positive (e.g., laughter) and negative (e.g., fear)
d. 4; fear, joy, anger, and sadness
46. For Watson, the basic emotion of rage was “called out” by the stimulus of ________
a. having a favorite toy taken away
b. having one’s freedom of movement restricted
c. having your blanket yanked out from underneath you
d. none of these—rage was not one of Watson’s basic emotions
47. In the Little Albert study, Watson and Rayner investigated all of the following except
a. fear acquisition
b. extinction of the fear
c. generalization of fear
d. persistence of fear (over time)
48. Which of the following did not actually occur in the Little Albert experiment?
a. after the fear was learned, Watson demonstrated that it could be unlearned as well
b. the conditioned fear generalized to other furry objects (e.g., rabbits)
c. the fear was created by pairing together the white rat and a loud noise
d. the conditioned fear lasted for several weeks after it was established
49. The Little Albert study has been criticized for all of the following reasons except
a. the generalization test was contaminated by further learning trials
b. there is ambiguity in the description of exactly what happened procedurally
c. Watson and Rayner picked a highly emotional boy for their study—it’s not surprising
that he reacted badly
d. such a definitive conclusion about conditioning should not be made on the basis of a
study with just one subject
50. Concerning the extinction of a conditioned emotional response, Watson and Rayner
a. tried but failed to eliminate Little Albert’s fear
b. argued that once a fear had been conditioned, it could not be eliminated
c. made some suggestions about removing the fear, but made no attempt to do so
d. could not have removed the fear even if they wanted to—Albert left the hospital too soon
51. Watson and Rayner made no attempt to remove Albert’s fear, but Mary Cover Jones succeeded in another case. She accomplished this by
a. letting a long period of time pass—they child eventually got over the fear
b. verbal appeal to the child—she talked him out of the fear
c. having other children make fun of the child with the fear
d. replacing the fear response with a more pleasurable response associated with eating
52. Mary Cover Jones removed the fear of rabbits in a young boy by using a procedure similar to one that later came to be called systematic desensitization. The procedure involved
a. gradually bringing the rabbit closer and closer while the boy was eating
b. an application of simple extinction—putting a rabbit in the room with boy until the fear stopped
c. simply allowing enough time to pass so that forgetting could occur
d. rational appeal—convincing the child that the fear was groundless
53. What was Watson’s most important contribution to the world of advertising?
a. he invented many new advertising techniques (e.g., using sex to sell)
b. he applied scientific thinking to marketing procedures
c. he essentially invented advertising as a business tool
d. none of these—his work had to do with employee selection, not advertising
54. With which of the following statements about child rearing would Watson agree?
a. children should have a great deal of emotional support from parents, especially in their
b. there’s not a whole lot that parents can do to shape their children
c. especially in the first year when they are helpless, it is important to meet attachment
needs by hugging and touching infants as much as possible
d. children should be treated objectively and unemotionally, as young adults
55. Watson’s “dozen infants” quote is a good illustration of his belief in the importance of
a. individual differences in children
b. natural instincts
c. the environment in shaping behavior
d. the irrational side of us (i.e., the unconscious)
56. Which of the following is true about Watson’s “dozen infants” quote?
a. he overstated the case, partly to counteract the claims about inheritance that were being
made by the mental testers
b. it is seldom quoted in textbooks anymore
c. his intent was to state what he believed—that instincts play absolutely no role in human
d. it reflected his strong belief in the importance of emphasizing individual differences
(i.e., by referring to 12 completely unique infants)
1. B 29. B
2. A 30. B
3. A 31. A
4. C 32. A
5. C 33. D
6. A 34. B
7. D 35. A
8. C 36. B
9. A 37. A
10. A 38. A
11. C 39. C
12. A 40. C
13. C 41. D
14. D 42. C
15. C 43. A
16. D 44. B
17. B 45. A
18. C 46. B
19. D 47. B
20. C 48. A
21. C 49. C
22. A 50. C
23. A 51. D
24. A 52. A
25. C 53. B
26. A 54. D
27. B 55. C
28. C 56. A
II. Short Answer
1. In a sentence, define the essence of positivism.
2. Pavlov almost became a priest, but then read two important books. What were they?
3. If you were a new student in Pavlov’s laboratory, what would your first main assignment be?
4. Describe how Pavlov accomplished the extinction of a CR.
5. After completing acquisition of a CR, how would you demonstrate (a) generalization and (b) differentiation?
6. In what sense is it appropriate to refer to Pavlov’s laboratory as a “factory?”
7. In a sentence, sum up Pavlov’s relationship with the Soviet Union, which took power by force in 1917.
8. When did Pavlov’s work begin to make its major impact on American psychology and why did this happen when it did?
9. The Miles diary entry on the Cattell-Pavlov party in 1929 is said to be a good illustration of scientific thinking. Why?
10. What did Watson and Carr conclude was the most important sense involved in maze learning?
11. Give an example to show that you know what is meant by animal psychophysics.
12. According to Watson’s behaviorist manifesto, what should be the goal of psychology?
13. It makes sense that Watson would criticize structuralism in his manifesto. But why did he also criticize functionalism?
14. According to the research of Watson and Morgan, what were the three fundamental human emotions and what stimuli produced these emotions?
15. In the Little Albert study, how did Watson and Rayner study generalization?
16. Deborah Coon has argued Watson’s contribution to the world of advertising had nothing to do with the particular advertising strategies that he used. What was his contribution then?
17. Why did Watson warn mothers against being too affectionate with children?
18. What was the essential message of Watson’s “dozen infants” quote?
1. Describe the connections between behaviorist thinking and some of the philosophical positions encountered earlier in the text.
2. Describe Comte’s positivism and relate it to Sir Francis Bacon and B. F. Skinner.
3. Describe how behaviorism’s roots are to be found in Darwinian evolution and British empiricist philosophy.
4. Describe what Pavlov meant by experimental neurosis, how he demonstrated it in the laboratory, and how it related to his interests in individual differences.
5. Modern introductory psychology textbooks often include the wrong drawing of Pavlov’s apparatus. How did this come about and what is the lesson for textbook authors and textbook readers?
6. Describe the logic of the Watson-Carr maze studies. That is, on what basis were they able to conclude that the kinaesthetic sense was the essential one for learning to occur?
7. Describe the main points made by Watson in his behaviorist manifesto. What was the impact of the paper on American psychology?
8. Describe and criticize the Little Albert study.
9. Evaluate the impact of Watson on American psychology.