Managerial Accounting Creating Value In A Dynamic Business Environment – 10th Edition – Test Bank – Ronald W. Hilton

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What student Can Expect From A Test Bank?
A test bank will include the following questions:
1. True/False
2. Multiple Choice Questions
3. Matching Questions
4. Fill In The Blanks
5. Essay Questions
6. Short  Questions

Description

Chapter 04
Process Costing and Hybrid Product-Costing Systems

True / False Questions

1. The flow of costs through the manufacturing accounts is essentially the same in both process costing and job-order costing.

True False

2. Companies that use a process-cost accounting system would establish a separate Work-in-Process Inventory account for each manufacturing department.

True False

3. CFF, Inc. overstated the percentage of work completed with respect to conversion cost on the ending work-in-process inventory. This overstatement caused conversion-cost equivalent units to be overstated.

True False

4. Equivalent-unit calculations are necessary to allocate manufacturing costs between units sold and ending work in process.

True False

5. Operation costing tends to parallel job-order costing with respect to the treatment of conversion cost.

True False

Multiple Choice Questions

6. Process costing is used to account for:

A. large numbers of identical products that are produced in a continuous manufacturing environment.

B. small numbers of products that are produced in batches.

C. raw materials that are converted directly to finished goods.

D. finished goods that are refined and processed further.

E. large numbers of products that are produced in a non-repetitive process.

7. Which of the following manufacturers would most likely not use a process-cost accounting system?

A. A producer of computer monitors.

B. A paint manufacturer.

C. A producer of frozen orange juice.

D. A builder of customized yachts.

E. A lumber mill.

8. Process costing would likely be used in all of the following industries except:

A. petroleum refining.

B. chemicals.

C. truck tire manufacturing.

D. wood pulp production.

E. automobile repair.

9. Which of the following companies would likely use a process-costing system?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

10. Which of the following statements about similarities between process costing and job-order costing are true?

I. Both systems assign production costs to units of output.
II. Both systems require extensive knowledge of financial accounting.
III. The flow of costs through the manufacturing accounts is essentially the same.

A. I only.

B. I and III.

C. II and III.

D. III only.

E. I, II, and III.

11. Companies that use a process-cost accounting system would:

A. establish a separate Work-in-Process Inventory account for each manufacturing department.

B. establish a separate Finished-Goods Inventory account for each manufacturing department.

C. pass completed production directly to Cost of Goods Sold.

D. charge goods produced with actual overhead amounts rather than applied overhead amounts.

E. eliminate the need for the Finished-Goods Inventory account.

12. Which of the following statements is false?

A. In job-order costing, costs are accumulated by job order.

B. In process costing, costs are accumulated by department.

C. In process costing, the cost per unit in a department is found by spreading the period’s manufacturing costs over the production activity.

D. In process costing, the total cost of each unit is found by dividing the total factory costs by the number of units completed.

E. In job-order costing, the unit cost is found by dividing the job’s total cost by the job’s total units.

13. In a process-costing system, manufacturing costs are accumulated by:

A. batch.

B. batch and time period.

C. department.

D. department and time period.

E. department or process, and time period.

14. Which of the following choices correctly shows how costs are accumulated in a process-costing system?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

15. Masterson, Inc., which uses a process-cost accounting system, passes completed production from Department A to Department B for further manufacturing. The journal entry to record completed production in Department A requires:

A. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory and a credit to Finished-Goods Inventory.

B. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory.

C. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department A.

D. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department A and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department B.

E. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department B and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department A.

16. Griswold, Inc., which uses a process-costing system, transfers completed production from Department no. 1 to Department no. 2 for further work. Which of the following best describes the account that would be debited to record this transfer?

A. Cost of Goods Transferred.

B. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 1.

C. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 2.

D. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 1.

E. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 2.

17. Barnett, Inc., which uses a process-costing system, transfers completed production from Department no. 1 to Department no. 2 for further work. Which of the following best describes the account that would be credited to record this transfer?

A. Cost of Goods Transferred.

B. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 1.

C. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 2.

D. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 1.

E. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 2.

18. Hamilton, which uses a process-costing system, had a balance in its Work-in-Process account of $68,000 on January 1. The account was charged with direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead of $450,000 throughout the year. If a review of the accounting records determined that $86,000 of goods were still in production at year-end, Hamilton should make a journal entry on December 31 that includes:

A. a debit to Cost of Goods Sold for $432,000.

B. a credit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $432,000.

C. a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $432,000.

D. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $86,000.

E. a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $86,000.

19. Hammett has a single production department, and uses a process-costing system. The balance in its Work-in-Process account on January 1 was $68,000. The account was charged with direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead of $450,000 throughout the year. If a review of the accounting records determined that $86,000 of goods were still in production at year-end, Hammett should make a journal entry on December 31 that includes:

A. a debit to Cost of Goods Sold for $432,000.

B. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $432,000.

C. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $432,000.

D. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $86,000.

E. a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $86,000.

20. Unit costs in a process-costing system are derived by using:

A. in-process units.

B. completed units.

C. physical units.

D. equivalent units.

21. Barrett Corporation had 6,500 units of work in process on April 1. During April, 19,100 units were completed and as of April 30, 5,100 units remained in production. How many units were started during April?

A. 11,600.

B. 17,700.

C. 20,500.

D. 30,700.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

22. Lester Corporation had 8,200 units of work in process on November 1. During November, 26,800 units were started and as of November 30, 7,900 units remained in production. How many units were completed during November?

A. 16,100.

B. 26,500.

C. 27,100.

D. 42,800.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

23. Xin Co., had 3,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 60% complete. During April, 10,000 units were completed and as of April 30, 4,000 units that were 40% complete remained in production. How many units were started during April?

A. 8,600.

B. 9,800.

C. 11,000.

D. 12,200.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

24. Yes! Co., had 3,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 60% complete. During April, 11,000 units were started and as of April 30, 4,000 units that were 40% complete remained in production. How many units were completed during April?

A. 10,000.

B. 9,800.

C. 11,000.

D. 12,200.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

25. Ohio, Inc., which uses a process-cost accounting system, began operations on January 1 of the current year. The company incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. If Ohio started work on 3,000 units during the period and these units were 70% of the way through manufacturing, it would be correct to say that the company has:

A. 3,000 physical units in production.

B. 2,100 completed units.

C. 900 in-process units.

D. 900 equivalent units of production.

E. 3,000 equivalent units of production.

26. Which of the following data are needed to calculate total equivalent units under the weighted-average method?

A. Work-to-date on ending work in process, units started during the period.

B. Units completed during the period, work-to-date on ending work in process.

C. Work to complete beginning work in process, work-to-date on ending work in process.

D. Work to complete beginning work in process, units completed, and work done on ending work in process.

E. Units completed, work to complete beginning work in process.

27. Kentucky Corporation uses a process-cost accounting system. The company adds direct materials at the start of its production process; conversion cost, on the other hand, is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The firm has no beginning work-in-process inventory; its ending work in process is 40% complete. Which of the following sets of percentages would be used to calculate the correct number of equivalent units in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. Materials, 40%; conversion cost, 40%.

B. Materials, 40%; conversion cost, 100%.

C. Materials, 100%; conversion cost, 40%.

D. Materials, 100%; conversion cost, 60%.

E. Materials, 100%; conversion cost, 100%.

28. Kendra Corporation uses a process-cost accounting system. The company adds direct materials and direct labor at the start of its production process; overhead cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The firm has no beginning work-in-process inventory; its ending work in process is 40% complete. Which of the following sets of percentages would be used to calculate the correct number of equivalent units in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. Materials, 100%; labor, 100%; overhead cost, 40%.

B. Materials, 100%; labor, 100%; overhead cost, 100%.

C. Materials, 100%; labor 40%; overhead cost, 40%.

D. Materials, 40%; labor, 40%; overhead cost, 60%.

E. Materials, 40%; labor, 40%; overhead cost, 100%.

29. Agora Company uses a process-cost system for its single product. Material A is added at the beginning of the process; in contrast, material B is added when the units are 75% complete. The firm’s ending work-in-process inventory consists of 6,000 units that are 80% complete. Which of the following correctly expresses the equivalent units of production with respect to materials A and B in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. A, 4,800; B, 0.

B. A, 4,800; B, 4,800.

C. A, 6,000; B, 0.

D. A, 6,000; B, 4,800.

E. A, 6,000; B, 6,000.

30. Aglow Company uses a process-cost system for its single product. Material A is added at the beginning of the process; in contrast, material B is added when the units are 50% complete. The firm’s ending work-in-process inventory consists of 4,000 units that are 75% complete. Which of the following correctly expresses the equivalent units of production with respect to materials A and B in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. A, 3,000; B, 0.

B. A, 3,000; B, 3,000.

C. A, 4,000; B, 0.

D. A, 4,000; B, 4,000.

E. A, 4,000; B, 3,000.

31. Willingham uses a process-costing system for its single product, which is manufactured from Material X and Material Y. X and Y are introduced to the product as follows:

Material X: Added at the beginning of manufacturing
Material Y: Added at the 75% stage of completion

The company started and completed 40,000 units during the period, and had an ending work-in-process inventory amounting to 8,000 units, 20% complete. Which of the following choices correctly expresses the total equivalent units of production for Material X and Material Y?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

32. Haskins Textile Co. manufactures a variety of fabrics. All materials are introduced at the beginning of production; conversion cost is incurred evenly through manufacturing. The Weaving Department had 2,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 30% complete as to conversion costs. During April, 9,000 units were completed and on April 30, 4,000 units remained in production, 40% complete with respect to conversion costs.

The equivalent units of direct materials for April total:

A. 9,000.

B. 13,000.

C. 13,600.

D. 14,400.

E. 15,000.

33. Haskins Textile Co. manufactures a variety of fabrics. All materials are introduced at the beginning of production; conversion cost is incurred evenly through manufacturing. The Weaving Department had 2,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 30% complete as to conversion costs. During April, 9,000 units were completed and on April 30, 4,000 units remained in production, 40% complete with respect to conversion costs.

The equivalent units of conversion for April total:

A. 9,000.

B. 10,600.

C. 11,200.

D. 12,000.

E. 12,600.

34. Fiero Corporation adds all materials at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The company completed 70,000 units during the year and had 12,000 units in process at year end, 20% complete with respect to conversion cost. Equivalent units for the year total:

A. materials, 70,000; conversion, 70,000.

B. materials, 70,000; conversion, 2,400.

C. materials, 72,400; conversion, 72,400.

D. materials, 82,000; conversion, 72,400.

E. materials, 82,000; conversion, 82,000.

35. Gregory, which uses a process-costing system, adds all material at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The information that follows relates to the period just ended:

Units started and completed: 75,000
Units in ending work-in-process inventory: 15,000, 60% complete

Which of the following choices correctly expresses the total equivalent units of production with respect to material and conversion cost?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

36. Gajewski began operations on January 1 of the current year. The company uses a process-costing system, and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. By January 31, the firm had completed 56,000 units. Which of the following statements is true about the ending work-in-process inventory if equivalent units for conversion cost totaled 59,000 units?

A. There is no ending work-in-process inventory.

B. The ending work-in-process inventory totaled 3,000 physical units.

C. The ending work-in-process inventory of 10,000 physical units was 30% complete.

D. The ending work-in-process inventory of 20,000 physical units was 85% complete.

E. More than one of the other answers is true.

37. Majesco, which uses a process-costing system, adds material at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The following selected information was taken from the company’s accounting records:

Total equivalent units of materials: 5,000
Total equivalent units of conversion: 4,400
Units started and completed during the period: 3,500

On the basis of this information, the ending work-in-process inventory’s stage of completion is:

A. 40%.

B. 60%.

C. 70%.

D. 80%.

E. some other percentage not listed.

38. Muhares, which uses a process-costing system, adds material at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The following selected information was taken from the company’s accounting records:

Total equivalent units of materials: 8,000
Total equivalent units of conversion: 7,400
Units started and completed during the period: 6,500

On the basis of this information, the ending work-in-process inventory’s stage of completion is:

A. 80%.

B. 70%.

C. 60%.

D. 40%.

E. some other percentage

39. Corruption, Inc. overstated the percentage of work completed with respect to conversion cost on the ending work-in-process inventory. What is the effect of this overstatement on conversion-cost equivalent units and physical units manufactured, respectively?

A. Overstated, overstated.

B. Overstated, understated.

C. Overstated, none.

D. None, overstated.

E. None, none.

40. Michaella, Inc. uses a process-costing system. A newly-hired accountant identified the following procedures that must be performed by the close of business on Friday:

1—Calculation of equivalent units
2—Analysis of physical flows of units
3—Assignment of costs to completed units and units still in process
4—Calculation of unit costs

Which of the following choices correctly expresses the proper order of the preceding tasks?

A. 1, 2, 3, 4.

B. 1, 2, 4, 3.

C. 1, 4, 3, 2.

D. 2, 1, 4, 3.

E. 2, 1, 3, 4.

41. When calculating unit costs under the weighted-average process-costing method, the unit cost is based on:

A. only the current period’s manufacturing costs.

B. only costs in the period’s beginning work-in-process inventory.

C. a summation of the costs in the beginning work-in-process inventory plus costs incurred in the current period.

D. only costs incurred in previous accounting periods.

E. a summation of the costs in the beginning work-in-process inventory plus costs to be incurred in the upcoming period.

42. When computing the conversion cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing, all of the following information would be needed except:

A. the number of units completed during the current accounting period.

B. the conversion work performed during the current period on the ending work-in-process inventory.

C. the conversion work performed during the current period on the beginning work-in-process inventory.

D. the conversion cost in the beginning work-in-process inventory.

E. the conversion cost incurred during the current accounting period.

43. Tesla Corporation, which adds materials at the beginning of production, uses a weighted-average process-costing system. Consider the data that follow.

The company’s cost per equivalent unit for materials is:

A. $1.24.

B. $1.66.

C. $1.67.

D. $2.05.

E. None of the answers is correct.

44. Peach Company uses a weighted-average process-costing system. Company records disclosed that the firm completed 40,000 units during the month and had 10,000 units in process at month-end, 20% complete. Conversion costs associated with the beginning work-in-process inventory amounted to $231,000, and amounts that relate to the current month totaled $966,000. If conversion is incurred uniformly throughout manufacturing, Peach’s equivalent-unit cost is:

A. $23.00.

B. $23.94.

C. $24.15.

D. $28.50.

E. None of the answers is correct.

45. Universal Manufacturing uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are introduced at the start of manufacturing, and conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout the process. The company’s beginning and ending work-in-process inventories totaled 10,000 units and 15,000 units, respectively, with the latter units being 2/3 complete at the end of the period. Universal started 30,000 units into production and completed 25,000 units. Manufacturing costs follow.

Beginning work in process: Materials, $60,000; conversion cost, $150,000
Current costs: Materials, $180,000; conversion cost, $480,000

Universal’s equivalent-unit cost for materials is:

A. $4.50.

B. $6.00.

C. $8.00.

D. $9.60.

E. None of the answers is correct.

46. Universal Manufacturing uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are introduced at the start of manufacturing, and conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout the process. The company’s beginning and ending work-in-process inventories totaled 10,000 units and 15,000 units, respectively, with the latter units being 2/3 complete at the end of the period. Universal started 30,000 units into production and completed 25,000 units. Manufacturing costs follow.

Beginning work in process: Materials, $60,000; conversion cost, $150,000
Current costs: Materials, $180,000; conversion cost, $480,000

Universal’s equivalent-unit cost for conversion cost is:

A. $13.71.

B. $18.00.

C. $21.00.

D. $25.20.

E. None of the answers is correct.

47. Gilberto adds materials at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost uniformly throughout manufacturing. Consider the data that follow.

Conversion cost in the beginning work-in-process inventory totaled $120,000, and August conversion cost totaled $270,000. Assuming use of the weighted-average method, which of the following choices correctly depicts the number of equivalent units for materials and the conversion cost per equivalent unit?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

48. Which of the following are needed to calculate the total cost of the ending work-in-process inventory under the weighted-average process-costing method?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

49. Which of the following are needed under weighted-average process costing to calculate the cost of goods completed during the period?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

50. Equivalent-unit calculations are necessary to allocate manufacturing costs between:

A. units completed and ending work in process.

B. beginning work in process and units completed.

C. units sold and ending work in process.

D. cost of goods manufactured and beginning work in process.

E. cost of goods manufactured and cost of goods sold.

51. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the equivalent units of direct materials total:

A. 68,000.

B. 69,400.

C. 74,000.

D. 75,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

52. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the equivalent units of conversion activity total:

A. 60,400.

B. 68,000.

C. 69,400.

D. 74,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

53. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the cost per unit of direct materials is:

A. $1.17.

B. $1.18.

C. $1.20.

D. $1.28.

E. None of the answers is correct.

54. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the cost per unit of conversion activity is:

A. $2.50.

B. $2.53.

C. $2.70.

D. $2.76.

E. None of the answers is correct.

55. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the cost of goods completed and transferred during May is:

A. $249,560.

B. $250,240.

C. $258,400.

D. $263,840.

E. None of the answers is correct.

56. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the total costs remaining in work in process on May 31 are:

A. $0.

B. $12,040.

C. $17,480.

D. $25,640.

E. None of the answers is correct.

57. Forest Company, which uses a weighted-average process-costing system, had 7,000 units in production at the end of the current period that were 60% complete. Material A is introduced at the beginning of the process; material B is introduced at the end of the process; and conversion cost is introduced evenly throughout manufacturing. Equivalent-unit production costs follow.

Material A: $12.50
Material B: $2.00
Conversion cost: $6.60

The cost of the company’s ending work-in-process inventory is:

A. $88,620.

B. $115,220.

C. $123,620.

D. $147,700.

E. None of the answers is correct.

58. Chen Corporation, a new company, adds material at the beginning of its production process; conversion cost, in contrast, is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. During May, the firm completed 15,000 units and had ending work in process of 2,000 units, 60% complete. Equivalent-unit costs were: materials, $15; conversion, $22.

The cost of Chen’s completed production is:

A. $225,000.

B. $330,000.

C. $333,000.

D. $555,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

59. Chen Corporation, a new company, adds material at the beginning of its production process; conversion cost, in contrast, is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. During May, the firm completed 15,000 units and had ending work in process of 2,000 units, 60% complete. Equivalent-unit costs were: materials, $15; conversion, $22.

The cost of the company’s ending work-in-process inventory is:

A. $26,640.

B. $44,400.

C. $56,400.

D. $74,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

60. Cosby uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are added at the beginning of the process; conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout production. The company finished 40,000 units during the period and had 15,000 units in progress at year-end, the latter at the 40% stage of completion. Total material costs amounted to $220,000; conversion costs were $414,000.

The cost of goods completed is:

A. $312,000.

B. $414,000.

C. $520,000.

D. $634,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

61. Cosby uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are added at the beginning of the process; conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout production. The company finished 40,000 units during the period and had 15,000 units in progress at year-end, the latter at the 40% stage of completion. Total material costs amounted to $220,000; conversion costs were $414,000.

The cost of the ending work in process is:

A. $54,000.

B. $78,000.

C. $114,000.

D. $195,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

62. Which of the following is a key document in a typical process-costing system?

A. Departmental production report.

B. Master schedule.

C. Production budget.

D. Sequential product report.

E. Materials requirement report.

63. Which of the following is true concerning cost drivers for the predetermined overhead rate in a process-costing system?

A. Predetermined overhead rates are not used in a process-costing system.

B. If direct material cost is the cost driver, direct labor and direct materials may be combined into the single element of prime cost.

C. If direct labor hours is the cost driver, direct labor and manufacturing overhead may be combined into the single element of conversion cost.

D. If direct labor cost is the cost driver, direct labor and manufacturing overhead may be combined into the single element of conversion cost.

E. Cost drivers are irrelevant in process-costing systems.

64. Operation costing might be used to determine the cost of all of the following products except:

A. sweaters.

B. automobiles.

C. living-room sofas.

D. dishwashing detergent.

E. high-definition (HD) and surround-sound cables.

65. Which of the following statements about operation costing is(are) true?

I. Conversion costs are accumulated by department.
II. Direct material costs are accumulated by batch.
III. Operation costing is a hybrid product-costing system.

A. I only.

B. I and II.

C. I and III.

D. II and III.

E. I, II, and III.

66. Operation costing:

A. tends to parallel job-order costing with respect to the treatment of conversion cost.

B. tends to parallel process costing with respect to the treatment of conversion cost.

C. tends to parallel process costing with respect to the treatment of direct materials.

D. would likely be used by a manufacturing plant that produces one model of a single product.

E. is commonly known as a joint-costing system.

67. Which of the following best describes the procedures used in operation costing to assign direct-material and conversion costs to production?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

68. When determining the cost of a manufactured good under an operation-costing system, a company would:

A. trace direct-material cost and actual conversion cost to each product produced.

B. trace direct-material cost to each product produced and use a predetermined application rate for conversion cost.

C. trace actual conversion cost to each product produced and use a predetermined application rate for direct material.

D. use a predetermined application rate for both direct-material cost and conversion cost.

E. often switch to a job-costing system to simplify recordkeeping procedures.

69. All of the following statements about an operation-costing system are true except:

A. direct material and conversion costs are traced to each batch of product produced.

B. direct-material cost is traced to each batch produced.

C. conversion costs are applied to products on a departmental basis using a predetermined application rate.

D. batches of product pass sequentially through the same processes.

E. conversion activities are similar across product lines but direct materials differ significantly.

Essay Questions

70. Colonial Products employs a process-costing system for its manufacturing operations. All materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion costs are incurred uniformly throughout production. The information that follows relates to September.

Required:

A. Calculate equivalent units of direct material for September.
B. Calculate equivalent units of conversion activity for September.

71. EnviroSmart Chemical Company refines a variety of petrochemical products. The following data pertain to the firm’s Baton Rouge plant:

Required:

Compute the equivalent units of direct materials and conversion for August.

72. Starling Chemical uses a weighted-average process-costing system. The following data relate to May:

Required:

A. Calculate the number of pounds completed during May.
B. Calculate equivalent units of materials and conversion for May.
C. Does Starling introduce all of its direct materials at the very beginning of production? Explain your answer.

73. Portofina Manufacturing uses a weighted-average process-costing system. The following figures pertain to July:

All materials are introduced at the start of the process, and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout production. The company used direct materials that cost $640,000; conversion amounted to $8 per equivalent unit.

Required:

A. Calculate the direct materials cost per equivalent unit.
B. Calculate the cost of units completed and transferred.
C. What percentage of conversion work will be performed on the 40,000-unit ending work-in-process inventory during August?
D. In all likelihood, were all of the 120,000 completed units begun in July? Explain.

74. Fedora, Inc., uses a weighted-average process-costing system and has one production department. All materials are introduced at the start of manufacturing; in contrast, conversion cost is incurred uniformly throughout production. The company had respective work-in-process inventories on May 1 and May 31 of 62,000 units and 70,000 units, the latter of which was 40% complete. The production supervisor noted that Federal completed 100,000 units during the month.
Costs in the May 1 work-in-process inventory were subdivided as follows: materials, $40,000; conversion, $90,000. During May, Fedora charged production with $300,000 of material and $710,000 of conversion, resulting in a material cost per equivalent unit of $2.

Required:

A. Determine the number of units that Fedora started during May.
B. Compute the number of equivalent units with respect to conversion cost.
C. Determine the conversion cost per equivalent unit.
D. Compute the cost of the May 31 work-in-process inventory.
E. What account would have been credited to record Fedora’s completed production?

75. Manhattan, Inc., uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are introduced at the beginning of production; conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The following information pertains to April:

The company’s accountant has already computed the cost per equivalent unit, as follows: materials, $5; conversion, $14.

Required:

Calculate the cost of goods completed during April and the cost of the ending work-in-process inventory.

76. Marcellus Corporation, which uses the weighted-average method of process costing, reported the following as of February 1:

Conversations with the production supervisor revealed that materials are introduced at the start of the process and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The company started 29,000 units during the month. Goods in process at the beginning and end of February totaled 3,000 units and 5,000 units, respectively, the latter batch being 60% complete.
Just prior to leaving on vacation, a trusted staff assistant was asked to compute the cost of February’s ending work-in-process inventory. Her calculations showed a huge rise in unit cost when compared with the February 1 figures, soaring to $250 [($470,000 + $280,000) ÷ 3,000 units (5,000 units × 60%)].

Required:

A. Did the staff assistant make any errors in her calculations? Explain.
B. Analyze the company’s production volume and determine the proper equivalent-unit figures for February.
C. Calculate the proper unit costs for February.
D. Calculate the cost of the February 28 work-in-process inventory.

77. Edge Company had a beginning work-in-process inventory of 30,000 units on June 1. These units contained $120,000 of direct materials and $272,000 of conversion cost. The following data relate to activity during June:

Edge uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are added at the start of manufacturing; in contrast, conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout production.

Required:

A. Compute the total equivalent units for direct material and conversion cost.
B. Compute the cost per equivalent unit of direct material and conversion cost.
C. Determine the cost of completed production.
D. Determine the cost of the June 30 work in process.

78. On May 1, Dawdle Company had a work-in-process inventory of 10,000 units. The units were 100% complete for material and 30% complete for conversion, with respective costs of $30,000 and $1,850.

During the month, 150,000 units were completed and transferred to finished goods. The May 31 ending work-in-process inventory consisted of 10,000 units that were 100% complete with respect to materials and 80% complete with respect to conversion.
Costs added during the month were $330,000 for materials and $503,750 for conversion.

Required:

Using the weighted-average method, calculate:

A. total equivalent units for material and conversion.
B. the cost per equivalent unit for material and conversion.
C. the cost transferred to finished goods.
D. the cost of ending work in process.

79. Baxley Products manufactures office furniture by using an assembly-line process. All direct materials are introduced at the start of the process, and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. An examination of the company’s Work-in-Process account for August revealed the following selected information:

Debit side—
August 1 balance: 600 units, 40% complete; cost, $44,600*
Production started: 1,800 units
Direct materials used during August: $90,000
August conversion cost: $51,400
Credit side—
Production completed: 1,400 units
*Supplementary records disclosed direct material cost of $30,000 and conversion cost of $14,600.
Conversations with manufacturing personnel revealed that the ending work in process was 80% complete.

Required:

A. Determine the number of units in the August 31 work-in-process inventory.
B. Calculate the cost of goods completed during August, and prepare the appropriate journal entry to record completed production.
C. Determine the cost of the August 31 work-in-process inventory.

80. Laskey uses a weighted-average process-costing system. Material A is added at the start of production; packaging material is introduced at the end. Conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout manufacturing.
The following selected data were extracted from the company’s production report:

Required:

A. Compute the equivalent-unit cost for conversion cost.
B. How far into the manufacturing process is the ending work-in-process inventory?
C. Would the total equivalent units for Material A and the packaging material be the same? Why?
D. Compute the cost of goods completed during the period.
E. Compute the cost of the ending work-in-process inventory.
F. What account would be debited to record the cost of goods completed during the period?

81. Levitt Corporation, which uses an operation-costing system, has three processing departments. All units pass through Department no. 1; upon completion, 70% of the goods are sent to Department no. 2 and 30% are sent to Department no. 3. Additional data follow.

• Forty thousand units were manufactured during the year.
• Conversion cost in each department was: No. 1, $380,000; no. 2, $196,000; and no. 3, $150,000.
• Batch no. 67, which consisted of 500 units, was sent to Department no. 3 for its additional processing. Direct materials of $23,500 and $11,900 were introduced to this batch in Department nos. 1 and 3, respectively.
Levitt assigns conversion cost to goods manufactured on the basis of units produced.

Required:

A. Determine the conversion cost per unit in Department no. 1, Department no. 2, and Department no. 3.
B. Compute the total cost of batch no. 67.
C. Operation costing is sometimes referred to as a hybrid costing system. Briefly explain.

82. Orville Knitters manufactures sweaters and uses an operation-costing system. All sweaters are processed through Department no. 1, with subsequent processing taking place in Department no. 2 or Department no. 3 depending on the type of fabric used. Twenty thousand sweaters were produced during the year; there was no beginning or ending work in process. Sixty percent of the goods were sent to Department no. 2 for manufacturing.
Conversion cost incurred in the three departments totaled $504,000, subdivided as follows: Department no. 1, $360,000; Department no. 2, $60,000; and Department no. 3, $84,000.
Data pertaining to two representative orders, nos. 545 and 567, were:

Required:

A. Explain the nature of operation costing.
B. Determine the cost of order nos. 545 and 567.

83. A considerable portion of the text’s process-costing presentation illustrated the proper way to allocate manufacturing costs to the units completed during the period and the ending work-in-process inventory. For companies that have a single manufacturing department, the journal entry to recognize completed production involves a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory. What journal entry, if any, is needed for these same companies to properly account for ending work in process?

84. Professor Jones is concerned that her students do not understand the concept of equivalent units. She has therefore prepared the following questions, to appear on an upcoming examination:
Equivalent units are used in a process-costing accounting system.

A. Explain the need for equivalent units and why separate equivalent-unit totals are calculated for direct materials and conversion cost.
B. If an examination of goods in production at the end of the period revealed 12,000 units that are, on average, 75% complete, would it be correct to say that 9,000 units were finished during the period? Why?

Required:

Prepare a complete answer key that can be used in grading the examination questions.

85. Operation costing is a hybrid type of accounting system that combines features of job-order and process-cost accounting.

Required:

A. Briefly discuss the similarities and differences of an operation-costing system and a job-order cost system.
B. Briefly discuss the similarities and differences of an operation-costing system and a process-cost system.

86. Operation costing is a popular type of accounting system, one that combines selected features of job-order and process-cost accounting.

Required:

A. Briefly discuss the basic features that are associated with an operation-costing system.
B. Explain why a sweater manufacturer may have a need for an operation-costing system.


Chapter 04 Process Costing and Hybrid Product-Costing Systems Answer Key

True / False Questions

1. The flow of costs through the manufacturing accounts is essentially the same in both process costing and job-order costing.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

2. Companies that use a process-cost accounting system would establish a separate Work-in-Process Inventory account for each manufacturing department.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

3. CFF, Inc. overstated the percentage of work completed with respect to conversion cost on the ending work-in-process inventory. This overstatement caused conversion-cost equivalent units to be overstated.

TRUE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

4. Equivalent-unit calculations are necessary to allocate manufacturing costs between units sold and ending work in process.

FALSE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

5. Operation costing tends to parallel job-order costing with respect to the treatment of conversion cost.

FALSE

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

Multiple Choice Questions

6. Process costing is used to account for:

A. large numbers of identical products that are produced in a continuous manufacturing environment.

B. small numbers of products that are produced in batches.

C. raw materials that are converted directly to finished goods.

D. finished goods that are refined and processed further.

E. large numbers of products that are produced in a non-repetitive process.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

7. Which of the following manufacturers would most likely not use a process-cost accounting system?

A. A producer of computer monitors.

B. A paint manufacturer.

C. A producer of frozen orange juice.

D. A builder of customized yachts.

E. A lumber mill.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

8. Process costing would likely be used in all of the following industries except:

A. petroleum refining.

B. chemicals.

C. truck tire manufacturing.

D. wood pulp production.

E. automobile repair.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

9. Which of the following companies would likely use a process-costing system?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

10. Which of the following statements about similarities between process costing and job-order costing are true?

I. Both systems assign production costs to units of output.
II. Both systems require extensive knowledge of financial accounting.
III. The flow of costs through the manufacturing accounts is essentially the same.

A. I only.

B. I and III.

C. II and III.

D. III only.

E. I, II, and III.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

11. Companies that use a process-cost accounting system would:

A. establish a separate Work-in-Process Inventory account for each manufacturing department.

B. establish a separate Finished-Goods Inventory account for each manufacturing department.

C. pass completed production directly to Cost of Goods Sold.

D. charge goods produced with actual overhead amounts rather than applied overhead amounts.

E. eliminate the need for the Finished-Goods Inventory account.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

12. Which of the following statements is false?

A. In job-order costing, costs are accumulated by job order.

B. In process costing, costs are accumulated by department.

C. In process costing, the cost per unit in a department is found by spreading the period’s manufacturing costs over the production activity.

D. In process costing, the total cost of each unit is found by dividing the total factory costs by the number of units completed.

E. In job-order costing, the unit cost is found by dividing the job’s total cost by the job’s total units.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

13. In a process-costing system, manufacturing costs are accumulated by:

A. batch.

B. batch and time period.

C. department.

D. department and time period.

E. department or process, and time period.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

14. Which of the following choices correctly shows how costs are accumulated in a process-costing system?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

15. Masterson, Inc., which uses a process-cost accounting system, passes completed production from Department A to Department B for further manufacturing. The journal entry to record completed production in Department A requires:

A. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory and a credit to Finished-Goods Inventory.

B. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory.

C. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department A.

D. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department A and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department B.

E. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department B and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory: Department A.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-02 Prepare journal entries to record the flow of costs in a process-costing system with sequential production departments.

16. Griswold, Inc., which uses a process-costing system, transfers completed production from Department no. 1 to Department no. 2 for further work. Which of the following best describes the account that would be debited to record this transfer?

A. Cost of Goods Transferred.

B. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 1.

C. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 2.

D. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 1.

E. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 2.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-02 Prepare journal entries to record the flow of costs in a process-costing system with sequential production departments.

17. Barnett, Inc., which uses a process-costing system, transfers completed production from Department no. 1 to Department no. 2 for further work. Which of the following best describes the account that would be credited to record this transfer?

A. Cost of Goods Transferred.

B. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 1.

C. Finished-Goods Inventory: Department no. 2.

D. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 1.

E. Work-in-Process Inventory: Department no. 2.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-02 Prepare journal entries to record the flow of costs in a process-costing system with sequential production departments.

18. Hamilton, which uses a process-costing system, had a balance in its Work-in-Process account of $68,000 on January 1. The account was charged with direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead of $450,000 throughout the year. If a review of the accounting records determined that $86,000 of goods were still in production at year-end, Hamilton should make a journal entry on December 31 that includes:

A. a debit to Cost of Goods Sold for $432,000.

B. a credit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $432,000.

C. a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $432,000.

D. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $86,000.

E. a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $86,000.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-02 Prepare journal entries to record the flow of costs in a process-costing system with sequential production departments.

19. Hammett has a single production department, and uses a process-costing system. The balance in its Work-in-Process account on January 1 was $68,000. The account was charged with direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead of $450,000 throughout the year. If a review of the accounting records determined that $86,000 of goods were still in production at year-end, Hammett should make a journal entry on December 31 that includes:

A. a debit to Cost of Goods Sold for $432,000.

B. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $432,000.

C. a debit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $432,000.

D. a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory for $86,000.

E. a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory for $86,000.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-02 Prepare journal entries to record the flow of costs in a process-costing system with sequential production departments.

20. Unit costs in a process-costing system are derived by using:

A. in-process units.

B. completed units.

C. physical units.

D. equivalent units.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

21. Barrett Corporation had 6,500 units of work in process on April 1. During April, 19,100 units were completed and as of April 30, 5,100 units remained in production. How many units were started during April?

A. 11,600.

B. 17,700.

C. 20,500.

D. 30,700.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

22. Lester Corporation had 8,200 units of work in process on November 1. During November, 26,800 units were started and as of November 30, 7,900 units remained in production. How many units were completed during November?

A. 16,100.

B. 26,500.

C. 27,100.

D. 42,800.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

23. Xin Co., had 3,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 60% complete. During April, 10,000 units were completed and as of April 30, 4,000 units that were 40% complete remained in production. How many units were started during April?

A. 8,600.

B. 9,800.

C. 11,000.

D. 12,200.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

24. Yes! Co., had 3,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 60% complete. During April, 11,000 units were started and as of April 30, 4,000 units that were 40% complete remained in production. How many units were completed during April?

A. 10,000.

B. 9,800.

C. 11,000.

D. 12,200.

E. None of the other answers are correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

25. Ohio, Inc., which uses a process-cost accounting system, began operations on January 1 of the current year. The company incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. If Ohio started work on 3,000 units during the period and these units were 70% of the way through manufacturing, it would be correct to say that the company has:

A. 3,000 physical units in production.

B. 2,100 completed units.

C. 900 in-process units.

D. 900 equivalent units of production.

E. 3,000 equivalent units of production.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

26. Which of the following data are needed to calculate total equivalent units under the weighted-average method?

A. Work-to-date on ending work in process, units started during the period.

B. Units completed during the period, work-to-date on ending work in process.

C. Work to complete beginning work in process, work-to-date on ending work in process.

D. Work to complete beginning work in process, units completed, and work done on ending work in process.

E. Units completed, work to complete beginning work in process.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

27. Kentucky Corporation uses a process-cost accounting system. The company adds direct materials at the start of its production process; conversion cost, on the other hand, is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The firm has no beginning work-in-process inventory; its ending work in process is 40% complete. Which of the following sets of percentages would be used to calculate the correct number of equivalent units in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. Materials, 40%; conversion cost, 40%.

B. Materials, 40%; conversion cost, 100%.

C. Materials, 100%; conversion cost, 40%.

D. Materials, 100%; conversion cost, 60%.

E. Materials, 100%; conversion cost, 100%.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

28. Kendra Corporation uses a process-cost accounting system. The company adds direct materials and direct labor at the start of its production process; overhead cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The firm has no beginning work-in-process inventory; its ending work in process is 40% complete. Which of the following sets of percentages would be used to calculate the correct number of equivalent units in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. Materials, 100%; labor, 100%; overhead cost, 40%.

B. Materials, 100%; labor, 100%; overhead cost, 100%.

C. Materials, 100%; labor 40%; overhead cost, 40%.

D. Materials, 40%; labor, 40%; overhead cost, 60%.

E. Materials, 40%; labor, 40%; overhead cost, 100%.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

29. Agora Company uses a process-cost system for its single product. Material A is added at the beginning of the process; in contrast, material B is added when the units are 75% complete. The firm’s ending work-in-process inventory consists of 6,000 units that are 80% complete. Which of the following correctly expresses the equivalent units of production with respect to materials A and B in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. A, 4,800; B, 0.

B. A, 4,800; B, 4,800.

C. A, 6,000; B, 0.

D. A, 6,000; B, 4,800.

E. A, 6,000; B, 6,000.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

30. Aglow Company uses a process-cost system for its single product. Material A is added at the beginning of the process; in contrast, material B is added when the units are 50% complete. The firm’s ending work-in-process inventory consists of 4,000 units that are 75% complete. Which of the following correctly expresses the equivalent units of production with respect to materials A and B in the ending work-in-process inventory?

A. A, 3,000; B, 0.

B. A, 3,000; B, 3,000.

C. A, 4,000; B, 0.

D. A, 4,000; B, 4,000.

E. A, 4,000; B, 3,000.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

31. Willingham uses a process-costing system for its single product, which is manufactured from Material X and Material Y. X and Y are introduced to the product as follows:

Material X: Added at the beginning of manufacturing
Material Y: Added at the 75% stage of completion

The company started and completed 40,000 units during the period, and had an ending work-in-process inventory amounting to 8,000 units, 20% complete. Which of the following choices correctly expresses the total equivalent units of production for Material X and Material Y?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

32. Haskins Textile Co. manufactures a variety of fabrics. All materials are introduced at the beginning of production; conversion cost is incurred evenly through manufacturing. The Weaving Department had 2,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 30% complete as to conversion costs. During April, 9,000 units were completed and on April 30, 4,000 units remained in production, 40% complete with respect to conversion costs.

The equivalent units of direct materials for April total:

A. 9,000.

B. 13,000.

C. 13,600.

D. 14,400.

E. 15,000.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

33. Haskins Textile Co. manufactures a variety of fabrics. All materials are introduced at the beginning of production; conversion cost is incurred evenly through manufacturing. The Weaving Department had 2,000 units of work in process on April 1 that were 30% complete as to conversion costs. During April, 9,000 units were completed and on April 30, 4,000 units remained in production, 40% complete with respect to conversion costs.

The equivalent units of conversion for April total:

A. 9,000.

B. 10,600.

C. 11,200.

D. 12,000.

E. 12,600.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

34. Fiero Corporation adds all materials at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The company completed 70,000 units during the year and had 12,000 units in process at year end, 20% complete with respect to conversion cost. Equivalent units for the year total:

A. materials, 70,000; conversion, 70,000.

B. materials, 70,000; conversion, 2,400.

C. materials, 72,400; conversion, 72,400.

D. materials, 82,000; conversion, 72,400.

E. materials, 82,000; conversion, 82,000.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

35. Gregory, which uses a process-costing system, adds all material at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The information that follows relates to the period just ended:

Units started and completed: 75,000
Units in ending work-in-process inventory: 15,000, 60% complete

Which of the following choices correctly expresses the total equivalent units of production with respect to material and conversion cost?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

36. Gajewski began operations on January 1 of the current year. The company uses a process-costing system, and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. By January 31, the firm had completed 56,000 units. Which of the following statements is true about the ending work-in-process inventory if equivalent units for conversion cost totaled 59,000 units?

A. There is no ending work-in-process inventory.

B. The ending work-in-process inventory totaled 3,000 physical units.

C. The ending work-in-process inventory of 10,000 physical units was 30% complete.

D. The ending work-in-process inventory of 20,000 physical units was 85% complete.

E. More than one of the other answers is true.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

37. Majesco, which uses a process-costing system, adds material at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The following selected information was taken from the company’s accounting records:

Total equivalent units of materials: 5,000
Total equivalent units of conversion: 4,400
Units started and completed during the period: 3,500

On the basis of this information, the ending work-in-process inventory’s stage of completion is:

A. 40%.

B. 60%.

C. 70%.

D. 80%.

E. some other percentage not listed.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

38. Muhares, which uses a process-costing system, adds material at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost evenly throughout manufacturing. The following selected information was taken from the company’s accounting records:

Total equivalent units of materials: 8,000
Total equivalent units of conversion: 7,400
Units started and completed during the period: 6,500

On the basis of this information, the ending work-in-process inventory’s stage of completion is:

A. 80%.

B. 70%.

C. 60%.

D. 40%.

E. some other percentage

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

39. Corruption, Inc. overstated the percentage of work completed with respect to conversion cost on the ending work-in-process inventory. What is the effect of this overstatement on conversion-cost equivalent units and physical units manufactured, respectively?

A. Overstated, overstated.

B. Overstated, understated.

C. Overstated, none.

D. None, overstated.

E. None, none.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

40. Michaella, Inc. uses a process-costing system. A newly-hired accountant identified the following procedures that must be performed by the close of business on Friday:

1—Calculation of equivalent units
2—Analysis of physical flows of units
3—Assignment of costs to completed units and units still in process
4—Calculation of unit costs

Which of the following choices correctly expresses the proper order of the preceding tasks?

A. 1, 2, 3, 4.

B. 1, 2, 4, 3.

C. 1, 4, 3, 2.

D. 2, 1, 4, 3.

E. 2, 1, 3, 4.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

41. When calculating unit costs under the weighted-average process-costing method, the unit cost is based on:

A. only the current period’s manufacturing costs.

B. only costs in the period’s beginning work-in-process inventory.

C. a summation of the costs in the beginning work-in-process inventory plus costs incurred in the current period.

D. only costs incurred in previous accounting periods.

E. a summation of the costs in the beginning work-in-process inventory plus costs to be incurred in the upcoming period.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

42. When computing the conversion cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing, all of the following information would be needed except:

A. the number of units completed during the current accounting period.

B. the conversion work performed during the current period on the ending work-in-process inventory.

C. the conversion work performed during the current period on the beginning work-in-process inventory.

D. the conversion cost in the beginning work-in-process inventory.

E. the conversion cost incurred during the current accounting period.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

43. Tesla Corporation, which adds materials at the beginning of production, uses a weighted-average process-costing system. Consider the data that follow.

The company’s cost per equivalent unit for materials is:

A. $1.24.

B. $1.66.

C. $1.67.

D. $2.05.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

44. Peach Company uses a weighted-average process-costing system. Company records disclosed that the firm completed 40,000 units during the month and had 10,000 units in process at month-end, 20% complete. Conversion costs associated with the beginning work-in-process inventory amounted to $231,000, and amounts that relate to the current month totaled $966,000. If conversion is incurred uniformly throughout manufacturing, Peach’s equivalent-unit cost is:

A. $23.00.

B. $23.94.

C. $24.15.

D. $28.50.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

45. Universal Manufacturing uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are introduced at the start of manufacturing, and conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout the process. The company’s beginning and ending work-in-process inventories totaled 10,000 units and 15,000 units, respectively, with the latter units being 2/3 complete at the end of the period. Universal started 30,000 units into production and completed 25,000 units. Manufacturing costs follow.

Beginning work in process: Materials, $60,000; conversion cost, $150,000
Current costs: Materials, $180,000; conversion cost, $480,000

Universal’s equivalent-unit cost for materials is:

A. $4.50.

B. $6.00.

C. $8.00.

D. $9.60.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

46. Universal Manufacturing uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are introduced at the start of manufacturing, and conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout the process. The company’s beginning and ending work-in-process inventories totaled 10,000 units and 15,000 units, respectively, with the latter units being 2/3 complete at the end of the period. Universal started 30,000 units into production and completed 25,000 units. Manufacturing costs follow.

Beginning work in process: Materials, $60,000; conversion cost, $150,000
Current costs: Materials, $180,000; conversion cost, $480,000

Universal’s equivalent-unit cost for conversion cost is:

A. $13.71.

B. $18.00.

C. $21.00.

D. $25.20.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

47. Gilberto adds materials at the beginning of production and incurs conversion cost uniformly throughout manufacturing. Consider the data that follow.

Conversion cost in the beginning work-in-process inventory totaled $120,000, and August conversion cost totaled $270,000. Assuming use of the weighted-average method, which of the following choices correctly depicts the number of equivalent units for materials and the conversion cost per equivalent unit?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

48. Which of the following are needed to calculate the total cost of the ending work-in-process inventory under the weighted-average process-costing method?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

49. Which of the following are needed under weighted-average process costing to calculate the cost of goods completed during the period?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

50. Equivalent-unit calculations are necessary to allocate manufacturing costs between:

A. units completed and ending work in process.

B. beginning work in process and units completed.

C. units sold and ending work in process.

D. cost of goods manufactured and beginning work in process.

E. cost of goods manufactured and cost of goods sold.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

51. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the equivalent units of direct materials total:

A. 68,000.

B. 69,400.

C. 74,000.

D. 75,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

52. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the equivalent units of conversion activity total:

A. 60,400.

B. 68,000.

C. 69,400.

D. 74,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

53. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the cost per unit of direct materials is:

A. $1.17.

B. $1.18.

C. $1.20.

D. $1.28.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

54. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the cost per unit of conversion activity is:

A. $2.50.

B. $2.53.

C. $2.70.

D. $2.76.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.

55. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the cost of goods completed and transferred during May is:

A. $249,560.

B. $250,240.

C. $258,400.

D. $263,840.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

56. Southern Lake Chemical manufactures a product called Zubek. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion activity occurs uniformly throughout production. The beginning work-in-process inventory is 60% complete with respect to conversion; the ending work-in-process inventory is 20% complete. The following data pertain to May:

Using the weighted-average method of process costing, the total costs remaining in work in process on May 31 are:

A. $0.

B. $12,040.

C. $17,480.

D. $25,640.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

57. Forest Company, which uses a weighted-average process-costing system, had 7,000 units in production at the end of the current period that were 60% complete. Material A is introduced at the beginning of the process; material B is introduced at the end of the process; and conversion cost is introduced evenly throughout manufacturing. Equivalent-unit production costs follow.

Material A: $12.50
Material B: $2.00
Conversion cost: $6.60

The cost of the company’s ending work-in-process inventory is:

A. $88,620.

B. $115,220.

C. $123,620.

D. $147,700.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

58. Chen Corporation, a new company, adds material at the beginning of its production process; conversion cost, in contrast, is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. During May, the firm completed 15,000 units and had ending work in process of 2,000 units, 60% complete. Equivalent-unit costs were: materials, $15; conversion, $22.

The cost of Chen’s completed production is:

A. $225,000.

B. $330,000.

C. $333,000.

D. $555,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

59. Chen Corporation, a new company, adds material at the beginning of its production process; conversion cost, in contrast, is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. During May, the firm completed 15,000 units and had ending work in process of 2,000 units, 60% complete. Equivalent-unit costs were: materials, $15; conversion, $22.

The cost of the company’s ending work-in-process inventory is:

A. $26,640.

B. $44,400.

C. $56,400.

D. $74,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

60. Cosby uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are added at the beginning of the process; conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout production. The company finished 40,000 units during the period and had 15,000 units in progress at year-end, the latter at the 40% stage of completion. Total material costs amounted to $220,000; conversion costs were $414,000.

The cost of goods completed is:

A. $312,000.

B. $414,000.

C. $520,000.

D. $634,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

61. Cosby uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are added at the beginning of the process; conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout production. The company finished 40,000 units during the period and had 15,000 units in progress at year-end, the latter at the 40% stage of completion. Total material costs amounted to $220,000; conversion costs were $414,000.

The cost of the ending work in process is:

A. $54,000.

B. $78,000.

C. $114,000.

D. $195,000.

E. None of the answers is correct.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

62. Which of the following is a key document in a typical process-costing system?

A. Departmental production report.

B. Master schedule.

C. Production budget.

D. Sequential product report.

E. Materials requirement report.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-06 Prepare a departmental production report under weighted-average process costing.

63. Which of the following is true concerning cost drivers for the predetermined overhead rate in a process-costing system?

A. Predetermined overhead rates are not used in a process-costing system.

B. If direct material cost is the cost driver, direct labor and direct materials may be combined into the single element of prime cost.

C. If direct labor hours is the cost driver, direct labor and manufacturing overhead may be combined into the single element of conversion cost.

D. If direct labor cost is the cost driver, direct labor and manufacturing overhead may be combined into the single element of conversion cost.

E. Cost drivers are irrelevant in process-costing systems.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-06 Prepare a departmental production report under weighted-average process costing.

64. Operation costing might be used to determine the cost of all of the following products except:

A. sweaters.

B. automobiles.

C. living-room sofas.

D. dishwashing detergent.

E. high-definition (HD) and surround-sound cables.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

65. Which of the following statements about operation costing is(are) true?

I. Conversion costs are accumulated by department.
II. Direct material costs are accumulated by batch.
III. Operation costing is a hybrid product-costing system.

A. I only.

B. I and II.

C. I and III.

D. II and III.

E. I, II, and III.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

66. Operation costing:

A. tends to parallel job-order costing with respect to the treatment of conversion cost.

B. tends to parallel process costing with respect to the treatment of conversion cost.

C. tends to parallel process costing with respect to the treatment of direct materials.

D. would likely be used by a manufacturing plant that produces one model of a single product.

E. is commonly known as a joint-costing system.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

67. Which of the following best describes the procedures used in operation costing to assign direct-material and conversion costs to production?

A. Choice A

B. Choice B

C. Choice C

D. Choice D

E. Choice E

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

68. When determining the cost of a manufactured good under an operation-costing system, a company would:

A. trace direct-material cost and actual conversion cost to each product produced.

B. trace direct-material cost to each product produced and use a predetermined application rate for conversion cost.

C. trace actual conversion cost to each product produced and use a predetermined application rate for direct material.

D. use a predetermined application rate for both direct-material cost and conversion cost.

E. often switch to a job-costing system to simplify recordkeeping procedures.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

69. All of the following statements about an operation-costing system are true except:

A. direct material and conversion costs are traced to each batch of product produced.

B. direct-material cost is traced to each batch produced.

C. conversion costs are applied to products on a departmental basis using a predetermined application rate.

D. batches of product pass sequentially through the same processes.

E. conversion activities are similar across product lines but direct materials differ significantly.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

Essay Questions

70. Colonial Products employs a process-costing system for its manufacturing operations. All materials are added at the beginning of the process, and conversion costs are incurred uniformly throughout production. The information that follows relates to September.

Required:

A. Calculate equivalent units of direct material for September.
B. Calculate equivalent units of conversion activity for September.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

71. EnviroSmart Chemical Company refines a variety of petrochemical products. The following data pertain to the firm’s Baton Rouge plant:

Required:

Compute the equivalent units of direct materials and conversion for August.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

72. Starling Chemical uses a weighted-average process-costing system. The following data relate to May:

Required:

A. Calculate the number of pounds completed during May.
B. Calculate equivalent units of materials and conversion for May.
C. Does Starling introduce all of its direct materials at the very beginning of production? Explain your answer.

A. 25,000 + 80,000 – 30,000 = 75,000

B.

C. No. The ending work-in-process inventory is only 40% complete with respect to material. If material were introduced at the very beginning of the process, this number would be 100%.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

73. Portofina Manufacturing uses a weighted-average process-costing system. The following figures pertain to July:

All materials are introduced at the start of the process, and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout production. The company used direct materials that cost $640,000; conversion amounted to $8 per equivalent unit.

Required:

A. Calculate the direct materials cost per equivalent unit.
B. Calculate the cost of units completed and transferred.
C. What percentage of conversion work will be performed on the 40,000-unit ending work-in-process inventory during August?
D. In all likelihood, were all of the 120,000 completed units begun in July? Explain.

A. $640,000 ÷ (120,000 + 40,000) = $4
B. 120,000 × ($4 + $8) = $1,440,000
C. Forty-five percent (18,000 ÷ 40,000) of the work was performed in July, leaving 55% for August.
D. No. In a continuous processing environment, the beginning work-in-process inventory is often the first batch of goods to be completed. These units entered production in a previous month.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

74. Fedora, Inc., uses a weighted-average process-costing system and has one production department. All materials are introduced at the start of manufacturing; in contrast, conversion cost is incurred uniformly throughout production. The company had respective work-in-process inventories on May 1 and May 31 of 62,000 units and 70,000 units, the latter of which was 40% complete. The production supervisor noted that Federal completed 100,000 units during the month.
Costs in the May 1 work-in-process inventory were subdivided as follows: materials, $40,000; conversion, $90,000. During May, Fedora charged production with $300,000 of material and $710,000 of conversion, resulting in a material cost per equivalent unit of $2.

Required:

A. Determine the number of units that Fedora started during May.
B. Compute the number of equivalent units with respect to conversion cost.
C. Determine the conversion cost per equivalent unit.
D. Compute the cost of the May 31 work-in-process inventory.
E. What account would have been credited to record Fedora’s completed production?

A. Since Fedora had accounted for 170,000 units (100,000 + 70,000), the company must have started 108,000 units in May (170,000 – 62,000).
B. Equivalent units for conversion cost total 128,000 [100,000 + (70,000 × 40%)].
C. The conversion cost per equivalent unit is $6.25 [($90,000 + $710,000) ÷ 128,000 units].
D. Ending work in process totals $315,000: materials, $140,000 (70,000 × $2.00) + conversion, $175,000 [(70,000 × 40%) × $6.25].
E. Work-in-Process Inventory

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-02 Prepare journal entries to record the flow of costs in a process-costing system with sequential production departments.
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

75. Manhattan, Inc., uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are introduced at the beginning of production; conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The following information pertains to April:

The company’s accountant has already computed the cost per equivalent unit, as follows: materials, $5; conversion, $14.

Required:

Calculate the cost of goods completed during April and the cost of the ending work-in-process inventory.

Cost of goods completed:
53,000 × ($5 + $14) = $1,007,000
Cost of ending work in process:
(12,000 × $5) + (12,000 × 30% × $14) = $110,400

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

76. Marcellus Corporation, which uses the weighted-average method of process costing, reported the following as of February 1:

Conversations with the production supervisor revealed that materials are introduced at the start of the process and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. The company started 29,000 units during the month. Goods in process at the beginning and end of February totaled 3,000 units and 5,000 units, respectively, the latter batch being 60% complete.
Just prior to leaving on vacation, a trusted staff assistant was asked to compute the cost of February’s ending work-in-process inventory. Her calculations showed a huge rise in unit cost when compared with the February 1 figures, soaring to $250 [($470,000 + $280,000) ÷ 3,000 units (5,000 units × 60%)].

Required:

A. Did the staff assistant make any errors in her calculations? Explain.
B. Analyze the company’s production volume and determine the proper equivalent-unit figures for February.
C. Calculate the proper unit costs for February.
D. Calculate the cost of the February 28 work-in-process inventory.

A. Yes, the assistant made several errors. Unit costs under the weighted-average method are derived by combining the beginning work-in-process costs with costs of the current month, and the assistant used only the latter. Additionally, she ignored units completed during February and incorrectly spread materials cost in the ending work-in-process inventory over 3,000 units rather than the correct figure of 5,000 units.
B. Units completed: 27,000 (3,000 + 29,000 – 5,000)
Equivalent units—materials: 32,000 (27,000 + 5,000)
Equivalent units—conversion cost: 30,000 [27,000 + (5,000 ÷ 60%)]
C. Cost per equivalent unit—materials: $16 [($42,000 + $470,000) ÷ 32,000] units
Cost per equivalent unit—conversion cost: $10 [($20,000 + $280,000) ÷ 30,000] units
D. The ending work-in-process inventory consists of materials (5,000 units × $16 = $80,000) and conversion cost (3,000 units × $10 = $30,000), for a total of $110,000.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

77. Edge Company had a beginning work-in-process inventory of 30,000 units on June 1. These units contained $120,000 of direct materials and $272,000 of conversion cost. The following data relate to activity during June:

Edge uses a weighted-average process-costing system. All materials are added at the start of manufacturing; in contrast, conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout production.

Required:

A. Compute the total equivalent units for direct material and conversion cost.
B. Compute the cost per equivalent unit of direct material and conversion cost.
C. Determine the cost of completed production.
D. Determine the cost of the June 30 work in process.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

78. On May 1, Dawdle Company had a work-in-process inventory of 10,000 units. The units were 100% complete for material and 30% complete for conversion, with respective costs of $30,000 and $1,850.

During the month, 150,000 units were completed and transferred to finished goods. The May 31 ending work-in-process inventory consisted of 10,000 units that were 100% complete with respect to materials and 80% complete with respect to conversion.
Costs added during the month were $330,000 for materials and $503,750 for conversion.

Required:

Using the weighted-average method, calculate:

A. total equivalent units for material and conversion.
B. the cost per equivalent unit for material and conversion.
C. the cost transferred to finished goods.
D. the cost of ending work in process.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

79. Baxley Products manufactures office furniture by using an assembly-line process. All direct materials are introduced at the start of the process, and conversion cost is incurred evenly throughout manufacturing. An examination of the company’s Work-in-Process account for August revealed the following selected information:

Debit side—
August 1 balance: 600 units, 40% complete; cost, $44,600*
Production started: 1,800 units
Direct materials used during August: $90,000
August conversion cost: $51,400
Credit side—
Production completed: 1,400 units
*Supplementary records disclosed direct material cost of $30,000 and conversion cost of $14,600.
Conversations with manufacturing personnel revealed that the ending work in process was 80% complete.

Required:

A. Determine the number of units in the August 31 work-in-process inventory.
B. Calculate the cost of goods completed during August, and prepare the appropriate journal entry to record completed production.
C. Determine the cost of the August 31 work-in-process inventory.

A. The ending work in process consisted of 1,000 units (600 + 1,800 – 1,400).
B. The cost of goods completed during August totaled $112,000 (1,400 units × $80):

C. The cost of the August 31 work-in-process inventory is $74,000:

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

80. Laskey uses a weighted-average process-costing system. Material A is added at the start of production; packaging material is introduced at the end. Conversion costs are incurred evenly throughout manufacturing.
The following selected data were extracted from the company’s production report:

Required:

A. Compute the equivalent-unit cost for conversion cost.
B. How far into the manufacturing process is the ending work-in-process inventory?
C. Would the total equivalent units for Material A and the packaging material be the same? Why?
D. Compute the cost of goods completed during the period.
E. Compute the cost of the ending work-in-process inventory.
F. What account would be debited to record the cost of goods completed during the period?

A. $134,400 ÷ 16,800 = $8
B.

C. No. Material A is added at the beginning of production and would be part of the ending work-in-process inventory. Given that the ending work in process is only 30% complete, these goods have yet to reach the completion of manufacturing where packaging is introduced.

D. 15,000 × ($5 + $2 + $8) = $225,000
E.

F. Finished-Goods Inventory

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-02 Prepare journal entries to record the flow of costs in a process-costing system with sequential production departments.
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-04 Compute the cost per equivalent unit under the weighted-average method of process costing.
Learning Objective: 04-05 Analyze the total production costs for a department under the weighted-average method of process costing.

81. Levitt Corporation, which uses an operation-costing system, has three processing departments. All units pass through Department no. 1; upon completion, 70% of the goods are sent to Department no. 2 and 30% are sent to Department no. 3. Additional data follow.

• Forty thousand units were manufactured during the year.
• Conversion cost in each department was: No. 1, $380,000; no. 2, $196,000; and no. 3, $150,000.
• Batch no. 67, which consisted of 500 units, was sent to Department no. 3 for its additional processing. Direct materials of $23,500 and $11,900 were introduced to this batch in Department nos. 1 and 3, respectively.
Levitt assigns conversion cost to goods manufactured on the basis of units produced.

Required:

A. Determine the conversion cost per unit in Department no. 1, Department no. 2, and Department no. 3.
B. Compute the total cost of batch no. 67.
C. Operation costing is sometimes referred to as a hybrid costing system. Briefly explain.

A. Department no. 1: $380,000 ÷ 40,000 units = $9.50
Department no. 2: $196,000 ÷ 28,000 units (40,000 × 70%) = $7.00
Department no. 3: $150,000 ÷ 12,000 units (40,000 × 30%) = $12.50

B.

C. Operation costing is a hybrid system because it contains features that are present in both a job-costing system and a process-costing system. Direct materials are assigned directly to the batches of goods produced; in contrast, conversion costs are accumulated by department and are then assigned to manufactured goods by using an averaging technique.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

82. Orville Knitters manufactures sweaters and uses an operation-costing system. All sweaters are processed through Department no. 1, with subsequent processing taking place in Department no. 2 or Department no. 3 depending on the type of fabric used. Twenty thousand sweaters were produced during the year; there was no beginning or ending work in process. Sixty percent of the goods were sent to Department no. 2 for manufacturing.
Conversion cost incurred in the three departments totaled $504,000, subdivided as follows: Department no. 1, $360,000; Department no. 2, $60,000; and Department no. 3, $84,000.
Data pertaining to two representative orders, nos. 545 and 567, were:

Required:

A. Explain the nature of operation costing.
B. Determine the cost of order nos. 545 and 567.

A. Operation costing is used by firms that produce different models of similar products. The products go through essentially the same manufacturing process, so conversion costs can be assigned in a manner similar to that used in process-costing systems. Materials, on the other hand, are unique to the individual goods being produced and, accordingly, the cost is assigned by batch (or in a manner similar to that used in job costing).
B. Conversion cost per sweater:
Department no. 1: $360,000 ÷ 20,000 sweaters = $18.00
Department no. 2: $60,000 ÷ (20,000 × 60%) sweaters = $5.00
Department no. 3: $84,000 ÷ (20,000 × 40%) sweaters = $10.50

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Measurement
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

83. A considerable portion of the text’s process-costing presentation illustrated the proper way to allocate manufacturing costs to the units completed during the period and the ending work-in-process inventory. For companies that have a single manufacturing department, the journal entry to recognize completed production involves a debit to Finished-Goods Inventory and a credit to Work-in-Process Inventory. What journal entry, if any, is needed for these same companies to properly account for ending work in process?

No journal entry is needed. The cost of the ending work-in-process inventory becomes the ending balance of the related inventory account (i.e., the proper amounts remain in the account after removal of the cost of completed goods).

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 04-01 List and explain the similarities and important differences between job-order and process costing.

84. Professor Jones is concerned that her students do not understand the concept of equivalent units. She has therefore prepared the following questions, to appear on an upcoming examination:
Equivalent units are used in a process-costing accounting system.

A. Explain the need for equivalent units and why separate equivalent-unit totals are calculated for direct materials and conversion cost.
B. If an examination of goods in production at the end of the period revealed 12,000 units that are, on average, 75% complete, would it be correct to say that 9,000 units were finished during the period? Why?

Required:

Prepare a complete answer key that can be used in grading the examination questions.

A. Equivalent units are needed as a measure of production volume. At the end of the period, manufacturing costs must be spread over the units produced, and it is incorrect to combine fully completed units with those that are still in production (akin to adding apples and oranges). Separate totals are needed because materials are often introduced at specific points in production whereas conversion is often introduced uniformly throughout manufacturing.
B. No. The units are still in production, so none of them are fully completed. It would be correct to say that the firm has done the work equivalent to manufacturing 9,000 finished units.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-03 Prepare a table of equivalent units under weighted-average process costing.

85. Operation costing is a hybrid type of accounting system that combines features of job-order and process-cost accounting.

Required:

A. Briefly discuss the similarities and differences of an operation-costing system and a job-order cost system.
B. Briefly discuss the similarities and differences of an operation-costing system and a process-cost system.

A. Similarities: Materials are unique to the individual batches or products being produced in both systems. The cost, therefore, is assigned by batch as in job costing. Differences: Processing and the incurrence of conversion costs is the same for each batch in operation costing. In job costing the different batches of product incur different processing steps.
B. Similarities: Batches of products go through essentially the same manufacturing processes in both systems. Conversion costs can be assigned in a manner similar to that used in process-costing systems. Differences: Each batch of product in an operation-costing system uses different direct materials. In a process system, the direct materials are the same.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

86. Operation costing is a popular type of accounting system, one that combines selected features of job-order and process-cost accounting.

Required:

A. Briefly discuss the basic features that are associated with an operation-costing system.
B. Explain why a sweater manufacturer may have a need for an operation-costing system.

A. Operation costing is used by firms that produce different models of similar products. The products go through essentially the same manufacturing process, so conversion costs can be assigned in a manner similar to that used in process-costing systems. Materials, on the other hand, are unique to the individual goods being produced and, accordingly, the cost is assigned by batch (or in a manner similar to that used in job costing).
B. A sweater manufacturer produces multiple versions of its single product: sweaters. The garments likely incur roughly the same labor and overhead cost, with the major difference among models being in the areas of fabric, color, and patterns (i.e., materials). Thus, the material cost will often differ and the manufacturer should take these differences into account, not spread costs equally over all units produced as would be done in a process-cost-type of procedure.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
AICPA BB: Critical Thinking
AICPA FN: Research
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 04-07 Describe how an operation costing system accumulates and assigns the costs of direct-material and conversion activity in a batch manufacturing process.

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