the strength of the association between exposure and disease

This chapter covered two new measures of effect—absolute and relative effects—that may be used as aids in the interpretation of epidemiologic studies. In addition, the chapter presented guidelines that should be taken into account when one is interpreting an epidemiologic finding. Absolute effects, the first variety of which is called risk differences, are determined by finding the difference in measures of disease frequency between exposed and nonexposed individuals.

Study Questions and Exercises

1) Calculate the etiologic fraction when the RR for disease associated with a given exposure is 1.2, 1.8, 3, and 15.)

2) The impact of an exposure on a population does not depend on:

a) the strength of the association between exposure and disease.

b) the prevalence of the exposure.

c) the case fatality rate.

d) the overall incidence rate of disease in the population

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